Definition of automated warehouse
The three-dimensional warehouse is also called high-level rack warehouse, automatic storage and retrieval system AS/RS (Automatic Storage & Retrieval System). It generally uses several, dozens, or even dozens of high shelves, and uses automated material handling equipment to carry out cargo outbound and inbound operations. Three-dimensional warehouses are generally composed of high-rise shelves, material handling equipment, control and management equipment, and civil public facilities.
The advantages and disadvantages of automated warehouses
The main advantages of automated warehouses:
1. Because it can make full use of the vertical space of the warehouse, the storage capacity per unit area is much larger than that of ordinary single-story warehouses (generally 4-7 times that of single-story warehouses). At present, the world's tallest three-dimensional warehouse can reach more than 40 meters, with a capacity of 300,000 cargo spaces.
2. All warehouse operations are mechanized and automated. On the one hand, it can greatly save manpower and reduce labor costs, and on the other hand, it can greatly improve operation efficiency.
3. Using computers for storage management can easily achieve "first in, first out", and can prevent natural aging, deterioration, and rusting of the goods, and can also avoid the loss of goods.
4. Centralized cargo positions are convenient for control and management, especially the use of electronic computers, which can not only realize automatic control of operations, but also carry out information processing.
5. It can better adapt to the requirements of special environments such as darkness, low temperature, and toxic. For example, a film factory stores film reels in an automated three-dimensional warehouse. Under complete darkness, the automatic storage of film reels can be realized through computer control.
6. Using pallets or containers to store goods, the damage rate of the goods is significantly reduced.
The main disadvantages of automated warehouses:
1. As the structure of automated warehouses is more complex and there are more supporting equipment, the required infrastructure and equipment investment is also relatively large.
2. The rack installation requires high precision, the construction is more difficult, and the construction period is correspondingly long.
3. Storage flexibility is small, and it is difficult to cope with peak demand.
4. There are certain restrictions on the types of goods that can be stored, and a separate storage system needs to be set up to store long, large, and heavy goods and goods that require special storage conditions.
5. The overhead cranes and automatic control systems of automated warehouses are highly technical equipment and require high maintenance. Therefore, suppliers must be relied on to obtain timely technical assistance in the event of system failure. This increases the dependence on suppliers.
6. The process design requirements before the construction of the library are high, and the process must be strictly followed when it is put into production.
The basic structure of automated warehouse
The automated three-dimensional warehouse is composed of warehouse buildings, automatic control and management systems, high-rise shelves, laneway stackers, in- and out conveyors and other equipment, as well as supporting power supply systems, air-conditioning systems, fire alarm systems, weighing and measurement System, packaging system, network communication system, etc.
1. High-rise racks, pallets and cargo boxes, high-rise racks are the main structural part of the automated three-dimensional warehouse. Generally, steel structures are welded or assembled. Each row of racks is divided into several rows and layers of cells, and each cell generally stores 1-3 pallets (cargo boxes). At present, the high-rise shelves manufactured in China are generally below 20 meters, and most of them are 10-15 meters. The section steel used in the shelf, and the welded shelf mostly uses hot-rolled section steel. Assembled shelves mostly use thin cold-rolled steel. The welded structure is strong and durable, but heavy. The assembled type has beautiful appearance, good disassembly and assembly performance and convenient transportation. Because cold-rolled thin-walled steel has good cross-section mechanical properties, it has great potential for light weight, saving steel, and reducing costs. For example, the plug-in components are very reasonable and firm. This is the development direction of high-rise shelves. The shelf structure type design generally adopts the corbel structure when the size of the pallet (cargo box) is large, and each compartment stores one pallet (cargo box). When the pallet size is small, the beam structure is adopted. Each compartment can store 1-3 pallet (cargo box) units. At present, there are more users of beam type shelf structure than corbel type. And there is a further increasing trend. Pallets (cargo boxes) are currently mostly used in steel structure or steel-wood structure, but with the development of the light plastic industry and injection molding technology. Plastic pallets (cargo boxes) are more attractive due to their beauty, corrosion resistance, and light weight. Small size and weight pallets (cargo boxes) will occupy an important position.
2. Stacking crane Stacking crane is the main execution equipment for storing and retrieving goods in automated warehouses. It can carry goods in the aisle of the rack to move horizontally, lift, and extend the fork from left to right, and complete various operation functions such as warehousing, exiting, and unloading. In order to make the stacker crane address accurate. Horizontal, vertical, and fork movement are set at two or more speeds, normal operation speed and slow speed (or use frequency conversion stepless speed regulation) to reduce the impact when parking and can be accurately in place, reaching 10mm when running horizontally. I0nm when vertical lifting is about. 5mm stop accuracy requirement when extending fork. The stacker is equipped with a virtual and actual detection device for the cargo space and the loading platform to prevent accidents caused by repeated storage when the cargo space has been occupied due to control (or management) errors. The stacker is set to the original position and stop indication. If it is not stopped due to inertia or other reasons, the stacker will automatically "correct deviation" according to the PC and program control. In addition, stackers. The terminal speed limit and limit switches for operation and start and stop are also set, and a mechanical car block is set at the end to prevent the operation of each mechanism of the stacker from exceeding the limit position. In order to ensure the safety of the driver of the stacker with the driver's cab and the cargo, the cargo platform is equipped with a rope break protection device or a speed limit anti-fall device. The stacker electrical system is also equipped with conventional electrical interlocking, loss of pressure protection, zero protection, overload protection and other functions. At present, the operating speed of each mechanism of the stacker is: horizontal operation 80m/min. Lifting 10-16m/min. Goods Fork 8-15m/min.
3. Inbound and outbound distribution system is in an automatically controlled three-dimensional warehouse. The inbound and outbound distribution system distributes the inbound goods to a certain laneway according to computer instructions, and then the laneway stacker will deliver them to the designated row, row, and floor according to the instructions. Output in the opposite direction when leaving the warehouse. A weighing device can be installed at the entrance of the goods. The ultra-high and ultra-wide size detection device prevents the cargo entering the warehouse from being overloaded, overweight, or oversize causing accidents. At present, most of the conveyed goods are determined according to the structure and weight of the goods, pallets or containers, and roller or chain conveyors are used. Elevators are often used at intersections where goods are transported to solve the problem of height difference. In addition, a conveying channel should be set up so that goods/pallets with unqualified weight and size are conveyed to the designated point for sorting before entering the warehouse area. It can also be used for picking in and out of the warehouse when the loose parts are in and out of the warehouse), and the unit goods are sent to the place, and then returned after being picked. When the frequency of entry and exit is not high, several aisles can be considered to share a stacker. At this time, a transition car or other transition equipment should be equipped. In order to transfer the stacker into another lane.
4. All operable equipment in the warehouse area of the automatic control system, such as stackers, conveyors, elevators, distribution vehicles, transition vehicles, etc., as well as the operation guarantee system of these equipment, should be controlled by a unified computer program. The control system has alarm and diagnostic display functions for mechanical, electrical and other faults. And some alarms can be handled by oneself. The operation of each equipment realizes automatic connection, and the action is reliable. Generally select high-quality programmable controller (PC). In order to ensure the stable and reliable operation of various institutions and accurate address identification, high-quality inverters, photoelectric components and other high-quality control components should also be selected.
5. Computer Management System
The computer management system should be able to complete the following main management functions for all cargo spaces and all inventory goods:
(1) According to the requirements, realize the management functions of goods first in first out, a certain lane priority, even distribution, etc., and carry out the management of inbound and outbound cargo positions
(2) Inventory and query according to the cargo location and the variety of goods;
(3) Print various statistical reports;
(4) Inventory analysis;
(5) Modify the contents of the data file.
The management computer can choose 486,586 grades of microcomputers, which can realize online communication with the lower-level monitoring and controlling computers. The communication method can be a cable or a closed safety slide line, and it is best to use an infrared signal transmission system. Easy installation, reliable transmission and long service life. According to needs, digital, text or graphic analog display devices for equipment operation and operation targets can be set up in prominent locations in the warehouse area and in the computer room to monitor the entire operation process.
Basic functions of automated warehouse
The basic functions of an automated warehouse can be summarized into the following four main functions, namely receiving, inventory, picking, and shipping.
EVERUNION Logistics Equipment Co., Ltd. is one of the earliest enterprises engaged in the production of logistics equipment in China. It is an enterprise specializing in the design, manufacture, installation and commissioning of industrial storage shelves and modular automated three-dimensional warehouses. The company strictly controls the entire production process of products in accordance with ISO9001: 2008 standards. The company's operating headquarters is located in Shanghai, and has a rack production base of tens of thousands of square meters in Kunshan, with convenient transportation. The company has independent import and export autonomy, and has undertaken thousands of large-scale storage racking projects. In 2015, sales have exceeded 100 million yuan, of which export orders accounted for more than 30% of sales. In order to expand export business and improve our company's requirements for product quality in the international market, our products successfully passed the CE certification in July 2016.